Russia: Foreign exchange reserves!


Reserves were formerly held only in gold, as official gold reserves. But under the Bretton Woods system, the United States pegged the dollar to gold, and allowed convertibility of dollars to gold. This effectively made dollars appear as good as gold. The U.S. later abandoned the gold standard, but the dollar has remained relatively stable as a flat currency, and it is still the most significant reserve currency. Central banks now typically hold large amounts of multiple currencies in reserve.

RankCountry/Monetary AuthorityForeign exchange reserves
(millions of USD)
Figures as of
Flag of World World (sum of all countries)$ 7,208,609
1Flag of the People's Republic of China People’s Republic of China
(does not include Hong Kong SAR & Macau SAR)
$ 1,589,900January 2008
2Flag of Japan Japan$ 1,007,981February 2008
Flag of Europe Eurozone
(EU member states which have adopted the euro, incl. ECB)
$ 556,965January 2008
3Flag of Russia Russia$ 494,500March 2008
4Flag of India India$ 301,235February 2008
5Flag of the Republic of China Taiwan$ 277,840February 2008
6Flag of South Korea South Korea$ 262,400February 2008
7Flag of Brazil Brazil$ 193,782March 2008
8Flag of Singapore Singapore$ 171,735February 2008
9Flag of Hong Kong Hong Kong$ 160,300February 2008
10Flag of Germany Germany$ 147,255January 2008
11Flag of France France$ 128,513January 2008
12Flag of Malaysia Malaysia$ 116,300February 2008
13Flag of Algeria Algeria$ 110,000December 2007
14Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom$ 104,580February 2008
15Flag of Italy Italy$ 103,459January 2008
16Flag of Thailand Thailand$ 100,500February 2008
17Flag of Mexico Mexico$ 90,380February 2008
18Flag of Libya Libya$ 79,000September 2007
19Flag of Iran Iran$ 76,100November 2007
20Flag of Switzerland Switzerland$ 75,559January 2008
21Flag of Turkey Turkey$ 74,900February 2008
22Flag of the United States United States$ 73,521February 2008
23Flag of Poland Poland$ 68,564January 2008
Flag of Europe European Central Bank
(ECB, reserves not wholly owned by any single EU member)
$ 64,285January 2008
24Flag of Norway Norway$ 58,930January 2008
25Flag of Indonesia Indonesia$ 57,130February 2008
26Flag of Nigeria Nigeria$ 56,800February 2008
27Flag of Argentina Argentina$ 49,000February 2008
28Flag of Canada Canada$ 43,613February 2008
29Flag of Romania Romania$ 41,078January 2008
30Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic$ 37,017February 2008
31Flag of Denmark Denmark$ 36,317January 2008
32Flag of the Philippines Philippines$ 36,100February 2008
33Flag of Egypt Egypt$ 32,915February 2008
34Flag of Venezuela Venezuela$ 32,723March 2008
35Flag of South Africa South Africa$ 32,723February 2008
36Flag of Peru Peru$ 32,587March 2008
37Flag of Ukraine Ukraine$ 31,842January 2008
38Flag of Australia Australia$ 31,832January 2008
39Flag of Sweden Sweden$ 31,561January 2008
40Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia$ 31,320October 2007
41Flag of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates$ 29,6202007 est.
42Flag of Israel Israel$ 28,662January 2008
43Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands$ 27,486January 2008
44Flag of Morocco Morocco$ 25,690January 2008
45Flag of Hungary Hungary$ 24,200January 2008
46Flag of Colombia Colombia$ 21,850February 2008
47Flag of Iraq Iraq$ 21,2602007 est.
48Flag of Vietnam Vietnam$ 20,000September 2007
49Flag of Spain Spain$ 19,999January 2008
50Flag of Kuwait Kuwait$ 19,6302007 est.
51Flag of Lebanon Lebanon$ 19,4002007 est.
52Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan$ 19,040February 2008
53Flag of Slovakia Slovakia$ 18,964January 2008
54Flag of Austria Austria$ 18,831January 2008
55Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria$ 17,367January 2008
56Flag of New Zealand New Zealand$ 17,236January 2008
57Flag of Chile Chile$ 16,910January 2008
58Flag of Belgium Belgium$ 16,717January 2008
59Flag of Serbia Serbia$ 15,864February 2008
60Flag of Pakistan Pakistan$ 14,063February 2008
61Flag of Croatia Croatia$ 13,819January 2008
62Flag of Macau Macau$ 13,600January 2008
63Flag of Angola Angola$ 12,2902007 est.
64Flag of Portugal Portugal$ 12,530January 2008
65Flag of Botswana Botswana$ 9,6292007 est.
66Flag of Finland Finland$ 8,602January 2008
67Flag of Jordan Jordan$ 8,005January 2008
68Flag of Yemen Yemen$ 7,8712007 est.
69Flag of Tunisia Tunisia$ 7,714February 2008
70Flag of Lithuania Lithuania$ 7,053February 2008
71Flag of Oman Oman$ 7,0042007 est.
72Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago$ 6,7612007 est.
73Flag of Cyprus Cyprus$ 6,1762007 est.
74Flag of Syria Syria$ 6,0392007 est.
75Flag of Qatar Qatar$ 6,3682007 est.
76Flag of Latvia Latvia$ 5,903January 2008
77Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh$ 5,490January 2008
78Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina$ 5,151January 2008
79Flag of Guatemala Guatemala$ 4,5592007 est.
80Flag of Bolivia Bolivia$ 4,9172007 est.
81Flag of Uruguay Uruguay$ 4,429January 2008
82Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan$ 5,6002007 est.
83Flag of Cuba Cuba$ 4,2472007 est.
84Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan$ 4,0002007 est.
85Flag of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea$ 3,9282007 est.
86Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica$ 3,9152007 est.
87Flag of Belarus Belarus$ 3,788January 2008
88Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan$ 3,6442007 est.
89Flag of Ecuador Ecuador$ 3,6182007 est.
90Flag of Estonia Estonia$ 3,581February 2008
91Flag of Malta Malta$ 3,5222007 est.
92Flag of Bahrain Bahrain$ 3,4742007 est.
93Flag of Greece Greece$ 3,387January 2008
94Flag of Kenya Kenya$ 3,300February 2008
95Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka$ 3,2522007 est.
96Flag of Honduras Honduras$ 2,8922007 est.
97Flag of Ghana Ghana$ 2,8372007 est.
98Flag of Iceland Iceland$ 2,792February 2008
99Flag of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic$ 2,5252007 est.
100 Côte d’Ivoire$ 2,5002007 est.
101Flag of Paraguay Paraguay$ 2,4632007 est.
102Flag of Tanzania Tanzania$ 2,4412007 est.
103Flag of Cameroon Cameroon$ 2,3412007 est.
104Flag of the Republic of the Congo Congo$ 2,2422007 est.
105Flag of El Salvador El Salvador$ 2,224January 2008
106Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea$ 2,193December 2007
107Flag of Uganda Uganda$ 2,1002007 est.
108Flag of Burma Burma$ 2,000January 2008
109Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Republic of Macedonia$ 1,8032007 est.
110Flag of Mauritius Mauritius$ 1,7722007 est.
111Flag of Armenia Armenia$ 1,657December 2007
112Flag of Albania Albania$ 1,615December 2007
113Flag of Cambodia Cambodia$ 1,600December 2007
114Flag of Jamaica Jamaica$ 1,490December 2007
115Flag of Mozambique Mozambique$ 1,470November 2007
116Flag of Gabon Gabon$ 1,4592007 est.
117Flag of Moldova Moldova$ 1,360February 2008
118Flag of Senegal Senegal$ 1,3502007 est.
119Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia$ 1,3002007 est.
120Flag of Panama Panama$ 1,2602007 est.
121Flag of Sudan Sudan$ 1,2452007 est.
122Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan$ 1,155January 2008
123Flag of Zambia Zambia$ 1,1002007 est.
124Flag of Slovenia Slovenia$ 1,076January 2008
125Flag of Nicaragua Nicaragua$ 1,0752007 est.
126Flag of Chad Chad$ 9972007 est.
127Flag of Ireland Republic of Ireland$ 930January 2008
128Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso$ 8972007 est.
129Flag of Lesotho Lesotho$ 8892007 est.
130Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia$ 8402007 est.
131Flag of Benin Benin$ 8252007 est.
132Flag of Namibia Namibia$ 7502007 est.
133Flag of Madagascar Madagascar$ 7452007 est.
134Flag of Barbados Barbados$ 6202007 est
135Flag of Laos Laos$ 5142007 est.
136Flag of Rwanda Rwanda$ 5112007 est.
137Flag of Swaziland Swaziland$ 3952007 est.
138Flag of Togo Togo$ 3632007 est.
139Flag of Cape Verde Cape Verde$ 3442007 est.
140Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan$ 3012007 est.
141Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg$ 294January 2008
142Flag of Guyana Guyana$ 2922007 est.
143Flag of Haiti Haiti$ 2212007 est.
153Flag of Vanuatu Vanuatu$ 149December 2007
144Flag of Malawi Malawi$ 1402007 est.
145Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe$ 1202007 est.
146Flag of The Gambia Gambia$ 1202007 est.
147Flag of Guinea Guinea$ 1192007 est.
148Flag of Burundi Burundi$ 1182007 est.
149 Seychelles$ 1182007 est.
150Flag of Belize Belize$ 922007 est.
151Flag of Samoa Samoa$ 702004 est.
152Flag of Tonga Tonga$ 55February 2008
154Flag of São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe$ 36December 2007
155Flag of Eritrea Eritrea$ 222007 est.
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